Vaccinations
NHS Choices

Men ACWY vaccine

Since August 2015 teenagers and new university students have been offered the MenACWY vaccine to improve protection against meningococcal group W (MenW) disease. The MenACWY vaccine protects against four different causes of meningitis and septicaemia – Meningococcal (Men) A, C, W and Y diseases.

The MenACWY vaccine is offered routinely to all young people around 13/14 years of age (school year 9).  All young people above this age but born after 1st September 1996 should already have been offered the vaccine as part of the two year catch up programme, either through the schools based programme or via their GP surgery.  

Those who have not already received the vaccine should contact either their school nurse or GP surgery to get vaccinated as soon as possible. Young people remain eligible to receive the vaccine up to the age of 25.

The MenACWY vaccine should also be given to all individuals under 25 years of age who are planning to attend university for the first time or those in their first academic year at university if they have not already received the vaccine. Ideally the vaccine should be administered at least two weeks prior to starting university.

Why do teenagers and students need Men W vaccination?

Cases of meningitis and septicaemia (blood poisoning) caused by Men W bacteria are rising, due to a particularly deadly strain.

Older teenagers and first time university students are at high risk of infection because they tend to live in close contact in shared accommodation, such as university halls of residence.

Men ACWY vaccine is given by a single injection into the upper arm. There are two Men ACWY vaccines that will be used in the vaccination programme, called Nimenrix and Menveo. They are very similar and both work equally well.

Men W disease

Cases of meningitis and septicaemia due to Men W have been increasing in Wales, there have been 5 confirmed cases of MenW in the first 5 months of 2015 compared to 0-4 cases per a year in the previous 5 years.

With early diagnosis and antibiotic treatment, most people with meningococcal disease make a full recovery. But it's fatal in about 1 in 10 cases and can lead to long-term health problems, such as amputation, deafness, epilepsy and learning difficulties.

Men W infections are particularly severe and usually need to be treated in intensive care. They have a higher death rate than the more common Men C and Men B strains.

The Men ACWY vaccine has previously been recommended only for people at increased risk of meningococcal disease, including people with no spleen or a spleen that doesn’t work properly, for Hajj pilgrims, and for travellers to countries with high rates of meningococcal disease, including parts of Africa and Latin America..

The Men ACWY vaccine

The Men ACWY vaccine provides good protection against serious infections caused by four different meningococcal groups (A, C, W and Y) including meningitis and septicaemia.

The vaccine only contains the sugar coating on the surface of the four groups of meningococcal bacteria and works by triggering the body’s immune system to develop antibodies against the sugar coating without causing disease.

Read more about vaccine ingredients.

Q&A document Meningococcal ACWY Immunisation Programme for Adolescents – (Public Health England, Sept 2016). Welsh policy and vaccine eligibility for catch up programme may differ and are as demonstrated at top of page.

Men ACWY vaccine side effects

Like all vaccines, the Men ACWY vaccine can cause side effects, but studies suggest they are generally mild and soon settle.

The most common side effects seen in teenagers and young people who receive the vaccine are redness, hardening and itching at the injection site, headache, nausea and fatigue.

Who should not have the Men ACWY vaccine?

You should not have the Men ACWY vaccine if you are allergic to the vaccine or any of its ingredients. You can find out the vaccine ingredients in the patient information leaflets for Nimenrix and Menveo.

You should also check with the doctor or nurse before having the Men ACWY vaccine if you:

  • have a bleeding problem, such as haemophilia, or bruise easily
  • have a high temperature
  • are pregnant or breastfeeding

How is meningitis W spread?

Meningococcal disease is caused by a bacterium called Neisseria meningitidis (also called the meningococcus). These bacteria can be divided into 13 different groups, of which five (A, B, C, W and Y) are responsible for nearly all serious meningococcal infections.

The meningococcal bacteria live in the back of the nose and throat in about 1 in 10 of the population without causing any illness. The bacteria is spread from person to person by close prolonged contact with a person carrying the bacteria, such as coughing, kissing and sneezing.

Very occasionally, the meningococcal bacteria can cause serious illness, including meningitis and septicaemia.

Meningococcal infections can strike at any age, but babies, young children and teenagers are especially vulnerable.

Men W cases on the increase

In England and Wales, most meningococcal infections are caused by group B (Men B). Men C, Men W and Men Y are usually responsible for only 10-20% of cases.

Although the total number of meningococcal cases in England and Wales has been falling since the early 2000s, Men W infections have increased from only 22 cases in 2009 to 117 in 2014. Currently, Men W alone accounts for almost a quarter of all meningococcal infections in England and Wales.

From 2009 to 2012, an average of four people died of meningitis W each year. Most of the people who died were elderly. But during 2013 and 2014, there were 24 deaths from Men W disease including, for the first time in over a decade, babies and toddlers.

Babies, older people and Men W vaccine

Only teenagers and young people will be vaccinated against Men W as part of the new vaccination programme. This is so they will be directly protected by the Men ACWY vaccine at a time when they're at increased risk (entering colleges and universities, where they will be socialising more).

Vaccinating teenagers against Men W should have the added benefit of indirectly protecting other age groups, including unvaccinated babies, children and older people. This is because teenagers are the age group most likely to carry the meningococcal bacteria at the back of their noses.

Vaccinating teenagers will reduce the number of carriers, and therefore spread of the Men W bug, both within their social circles and also to other age groups.

How to spot meningitis and septicaemia

Men W disease, like all meningococcal infections, can come on suddenly and progress quickly.

All meningococcal infections can cause meningitis and septicaemia, but Men W can also cause other illnesses, such as pneumonia and joint infections (septic arthritis).

Early symptoms of meningococcal disease include:

  • headache
  • vomiting
  • muscle pain
  • fever
  • cold hands and feet

A rash of tiny red pinpricks may also develop once septicaemia has set in. You can tell this is a meningitis rash if it doesn’t fade under pressure – for instance, when gently pressing a glass against it (the "glass test").

If you, or a child or adult you know, has these symptoms, seek urgent medical advice. Don’t wait for a rash to develop. Early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are vital.

Other meningitis vaccines

From September 2015, Men B vaccine (Bexsero) will be offered as part of the NHS childhood vaccination programme, to all babies aged 2, 4 and 12 months old.

Leaflets & Information

MenACWY website from Public Health Wales

MenACWY resources from Public Health Wales

Meningitis - NHS Direct Wales Encyclopaedia

Aged 13-18 years? Or under 25 and starting university?  Protect yourself against meningitis and septicaemia pdf

Aged 13-18 years? Or under 25 and starting university?  Protect yourself against meningitis and septicaemia  (MenACWY) poster (2016)

Video

Stacey Dooley interviews a young survivor of meningococcal disease to raise awareness of new MenACWY vaccination programme


Last Updated: 01/04/2017 09:00:00