Scabies is a contagious skin condition caused by tiny mites which burrow into the skin.
The main symptom of scabies is intense itching that is worse at night. It also causes a skin rash on areas where the mites have burrowed.
Read more about the symptoms of scabies.
See a slideshow of other rashes and skin conditions.
Scabies mites are called Sarciotes scabiei. They feed using their mouths and front legs to burrow into the outer layer of the skin (the epidermis), where they lay eggs.
After three to four days, the larvae (baby mites) hatch and travel to the surface of the skin where they mature into adults.
Scabies like warm places, such as skin folds, between the fingers, under fingernails or around the buttock or breast creases. They can also hide under watch straps, bracelets, or rings.
Read more about the life cycle of the scabies mite.
How is scabies spread?
Scabies is usually spread through:
- long periods of skin-to-skin contact with an infected person
- sexual contact with an infected person
Scabies can also be passed by sharing clothing, towels and bedding with someone who is infected, but this is rare.
It can take up to eight weeks for the symptoms of scabies to appear after the initial infection. This is known as the incubation period.
Read more about the causes of scabies.
Scabies is widespread in densely populated areas with limited access to medical care, and is most common in the following tropical and subtropical areas:
- Central and South America
- Northern and Central Australia
- Caribbean Islands
- Southeast Asia
In developed countries, scabies outbreaks can sometimes occur in places where there are lots of people, such as schools, nurseries and care homes.
In the UK, most scabies outbreaks occur during the winter. This may be a result of people spending more time indoors and in closer proximity to each other at this time of year.
It's difficult to know exactly how many cases of scabies there are in the UK. This is because many people don't visit their GP and treat the condition with non-prescription medicines.
You should visit your GP if you think you have scabies. It is not usually a serious condition but does need to be treated.
The two most widely used treatments for scabies are permethrin cream and malathion lotion (brand name Derbac M). Both medications contain insecticides that kill the scabies mite.
Permethrin 5% cream is usually recommended as the first treatment. Malathion 0.5% lotion is used if permethrin cream proves ineffective.
If your partner has been diagnosed with genital scabies, to avoid re-infection you should visit your nearest sexual health clinic so you can be checked and, if necessary, treated.
You should avoid having sex and other forms of close bodily contact until both you and your partner have completed the full course of treatment.
Read more about diagnosing scabies and treating scabies.
Complications of scabies
Scabies can sometimes lead to a secondary skin infection if the skin becomes irritated and inflamed through excessive itching.
A rare but more severe form of scabies, can develop in cases where there are a lot of mites in the skin. This is called crusted scabies and can affect older people and those with a lowered immune system.
Read more about complications of scabies.