Introduction

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK. Most women diagnosed with breast cancer are over 50, but younger women can also get breast cancer.

In rare cases, men can also be diagnosed with breast cancer. Read about breast cancer in men.

Symptoms of breast cancer

Breast cancer can have a number of symptoms, but the first noticable symptom is usually a lump or thickened breast tissue. Most breast lumps are not cancerous, but it's always best to have them checked by your doctor.

You should also see your GP if you notice any of the following:

  • a change in the size or shape of one or both breasts
  • discharge from either of your nipples, which may be streaked with blood
  • a lump or swelling in either of your armpits
  • dimpling on the skin of your breasts
  • a rash on or around your nipple
  • a change in the appearance of your nipple, such as becoming sunken into your breast

Breast pain is not a symptom of breast cancer.

Learn more about the symptoms of breast cancer.

Causes of breast cancer

The exact causes of breast cancer aren't fully understood. However, there are certain factors known to increase the risk of breast cancer.

These include:

  • age – the risk increases as you get older
  • a family history of breast cancer
  • a previous diagnosis of breast cancer
  • a previous benign breast lump
  • being tall, overweight or obese
  • excessive use of alcohol

Read more about the causes of breast cancer.

Diagnosing breast cancer

After examining your breasts, your GP may refer you to a specialist breast cancer clinic for further tests. This might include breast screening (mammography) or a biopsy.

Read more information about how breast cancer is diagnosed.

Types of breast cancer

There are several different types of breast cancer, which can develop in different parts of the breast.

Breast cancer is often divided into:

  • Non-invasive breast cancer (carcinoma in situ)  - found in the ducts of the breast (ductal carcinoma in situ, DCIS)and has not developed the ability to spread outside the breast. It's usually found during a mammogram and rarely shows as a lump in the breast
  • Invasive cancer – usually develops in the cells that line the breast ducts (invasive ductal breast cancer)and is the most common type of breast cancer. It can spread outside the breast, although this doesn't necessarily mean it has spread.

Other less common types of breast cancer include:

It is possible for breast cancer to spread to other parts of the body, usually through the bloodstream or the axillary lymph nodes. These are small lymphatic glands that filter bacteria and cells from the mammary gland.  If this happens, it is known as secondary or metastatic breast cancer.

Breast screening

Mammographic screening, where X-ray images of the breast are taken, is the most commonly available method of detecting an early breast lesion.

However, you should be aware that a mammogram might fail to detect some breast cancers.

It might also increase your chances of having extra tests and interventions, including surgery, even if you're not affected by breast cancer.

Women who have a higher-than-average risk of developing breast cancer may be offered screening and genetic testing for the condition.

As the risk of breast cancer increases with age, all women aged 50–70 are invited for breast cancer screening every three years. Women over 70 are also entitled to screening and can arrange an appointment through their GP or local screening unit.

Read more information about breast cancer screening.

Treating breast cancer

If cancer is detected at an early stage, it can be treated before it spreads to nearby parts of the body.

Breast cancer is treated using a combination of:

Surgery is usually the first type of treatment you'll have, followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy or, in some cases, hormone or biological treatments.

The type of surgery and the treatment you have afterwards will depend on the type of breast cancer you have. Your doctor will discuss the best treatment plan with you.

In a small proportion of women, breast cancer is discovered after it's spread to other parts of the body (metastatic breast cancer).

Secondary cancer, also called advanced or metastatic cancer, isn't curable, so the aim of treatment is to achieve remission (symptom relief).

Learn more about how breast cancer is treated.

Find your local cancer support services (including breast screening).

Living with breast cancer

Being diagnosed with breast cancer can affect daily life in many ways, depending on what stage it's at and the treatment you're having.

How women cope with their diagnosis and treatment varies from person to person. You can be reassured that there are several forms of support available, if you need it.

For example:

  • your family and friends can be a powerful support system
  • you can communicate with other people in the same situation
  • find out as much as possible about your condition
  • don't try to do too much or overexert yourself
  • make time for yourself

Read about living with breast cancer.

Preventing breast cancer

As the causes of breast cancer aren't fully understood, at the moment it's not possible to know if it can be prevented.

If you're at increased risk of developing the condition, some treatments are available to reduce the risk.

Studies have looked at the link between breast cancer and diet. Although there are no definite conclusions, there are benefits for women who:

  • maintain a healthy weight
  • exercise regularly
  • have a low intake of saturated fat and alcohol

It's been suggested that regular exercise can reduce your risk of breast cancer by as much as a third. Regular exercise and a healthy lifestyle can also improve the outlook for people affected by breast cancer.

If you've been through the menopause, it's particularly important that you're not overweight or obese.

This is because being overweight or obese causes more oestrogen to be produced, which can increase the risk of breast cancer.

Read about preventing breast cancer.

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Symptoms

The first symptom of breast cancer most women notice is a lump or an area of thickened tissue in their breast. Most breast lumps (90%) are not cancerous, but it is always best to have them checked by your doctor.

You should see your GP if you notice any of the following:

  • a new lump or area of thickened tissue in either breast that was not there before
  • a change in the size or shape of one or both breasts
  • bloodstained discharge from either of your nipples
  • a lump or swelling in either of your armpits
  • dimpling on the skin of your breasts
  • a rash on or around your nipple
  • a change in the appearance of your nipple, such as becoming sunken into your breast

Breast pain isn't usually a symptom of breast cancer.

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Breast awareness

So you can pick up any changes as soon as possible, it is important to be breast aware. Get to know what is normal for you. For instance, your breasts may look or feel different at different times of your life. This will make it much easier to spot potential problems.

For information and a step by step guide on how to self examine your breasts, watch the following video courtesy of Breast Cancer Now.

 

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Causes

The causes of breast cancer are not fully understood, making it difficult to say why one woman may develop breast cancer and another may not.

However, there are risk factors known to affect your likelihood of developing breast cancer. There are some factors you cannot do anything about, but there are some you can change.

Age

The risk of developing breast cancer increases with age. Breast cancer is most common among women over 50 who have been through the menopause. About eight out of 10 cases of breast cancer occur in women over 50.

All women between 50 and 70 years of age should be screened for breast cancer every three years as part of the NHS Breast Screening Programme. Women over the age of 70 are still eligible to be screened and can arrange this through their GP or local screening unit.

Read more about breast screening.

Family history

If you have close relatives who have had breast cancer or ovarian cancer, you may have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. However, as breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, it is possible for it to occur in more than one family member by chance.

Most cases of breast cancer do not run in families but, particular genes, known as BRCA1 and BRCA2, can increase your risk of developing both breast and ovarian cancer. It is possible for these genes to be passed on from a parent to their child.

Other newly detected genes, such as TP53 and CHEK 2, are also associated with increased risk of breast cancer.

If you have, for example, two or more close relatives from the same side of your family (such as your mother, sister or daughter) who have had breast cancer under the age of 50, you may be eligible for surveillance for breast cancer or for genetic screening to look for the genes that make developing breast cancer more likely. If you are worried about your family history of breast cancer, discuss it with your GP.

Previous diagnosis of breast cancer

If you have previously had breast cancer or early non-invasive cancer cell changes contained within breast ducts, you have a higher risk of developing it again, either in your other breast or in the same breast.

Previous benign breast lump

benign breast lump does not mean you have breast cancer, but certain types of lump may slightly increase your risk of developing it. Certain benign changes in your breast tissue, such as atypical ductal hyperplasia (cells growing abnormally in ducts) or lobular carcinoma in situ (abnormal cells inside your breast lobes), can make getting breast cancer more likely.

Breast density

Your breasts are made up of thousands of tiny glands (lobules), which produce milk. This glandular tissue contains a higher concentration of breast cells than other breast tissue, making it denser. Women with more dense breast tissue may have a higher risk of developing breast cancer because there are more cells that can become cancerous.

Dense breast tissue can also make a breast scan (mammogram) harder to read because it makes any lumps or areas of abnormal tissue harder to spot. Younger women tend to have denser breasts. As you get older, the amount of glandular tissue in your breasts decreases and is replaced by fat, so your breasts become less dense.

Exposure to oestrogen

The female hormone oestrogen can sometimes stimulate breast cancer cells and cause them to grow. Your ovaries, where your eggs are stored, begin to produce oestrogen when you start puberty to regulate your periods.

Your risk of developing breast cancer may rise slightly with the amount of oestrogen your body is exposed to. For example, if you started your periods at a young age and entered menopause at a late age, you will have been exposed to oestrogen over a longer period of time. In the same way, not having children, or having children later in life, may slightly increase your risk of developing breast cancer because your exposure to oestrogen is uninterrupted by pregnancy.

Being overweight or obese

If you have been through the menopause and are overweight or obese, you may be more at risk of developing breast cancer. This is thought to be linked to the amount of oestrogen in your body, as being overweight or obese after the menopause causes more oestrogen to be produced.

Alcohol

Your risk of developing breast cancer can increase with the amount of alcohol you drink. Research shows that, for every 200 women who regularly have two alcoholic drinks a day, there are three more women with breast cancer compared with women who do not drink at all.

Radiation

Certain medical procedures that use radiation, such as X-rays and CT scans, may very slightly increase your risk of developing breast cancer. If you had radiotherapy to your chest area for Hodgkin's lymphoma when you were a child, you should have already received a written invitation from the NHS for a consultation with a specialist to discuss your increased risk of developing breast cancer. See your GP if you were not contacted or you did not attend a consultation. You're usually entitled to having your breast checked with an MRI scan.

If you currently need radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma, your specialist should discuss the risk of breast cancer before your treatment begins.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with a slightly increased risk of developing breast cancer. Both combined HRT and oestrogen-only HRT can increase your risk of developing breast cancer, although the risk is slightly higher if you take combined HRT.

It is estimated there will be an extra 19 cases of breast cancer for every 1,000 women taking combined HRT for 10 years. The risk continues to increase slightly the longer you take HRT, but returns to normal once you stop taking it.

The prolonged use of HRT is not usually recommended, especially if you find it possible to cope with symptoms of the menopause.

Contraceptive pill

Research has shown that women who use the contraceptive pill have a slightly increased risk of developing breast cancer.

However, the risk starts to decrease once you stop taking the pill, and your risk of breast cancer is back to normal 10 years after stopping.

The Cancer Research UK website has more information about the contraceptive pill and cancer risk.

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Diagnosis

You may be diagnosed with breast cancer after routine breast screening, or you may have symptoms which you have seen your GP about.

Seeing your GP

See your GP as soon as possible if you notice any symptoms of breast cancer, such as an unusual lump in your breast or any change in the appearance, feel or shape of your breasts.

Your GP will examine you and, if they think your symptoms need further assessment, they'll refer you to a specialist breast cancer clinic.

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Tests at the breast cancer clinic

If you have suspected breast cancer, either because of your symptoms or because your mammogram has shown an abnormality, you will be referred to a specialist breast cancer clinic for further tests.

Mammogram and breast ultrasound

If you have symptoms and have been referred to a specialist breast unit by your GP, you will probably be invited to have a mammogram, which is an X-ray of your breasts. You may also need an ultrasound scan.

If your cancer was detected through the Breast Test Wales Screening Programme, you may need another mammogram or ultrasound scan.

If you are under 35, your doctor may suggest you have a breast ultrasound scan only. This is because younger women have denser breasts, which means a mammogram is not as effective as ultrasound in detecting cancer.

Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to produce an image of the inside of your breasts. Showing any lumps or abnormalities. Your breast specialist may also suggest a breast ultrasound if they need to know whether a lump in your breast is solid or contains liquid.

Biopsy

biopsy is where a sample of tissue cells is taken from your breast and tested to see if it is cancerous.

You may also need a scan and a needle test on lymph nodes in your armpit (axilla) to see if these are also affected.

Biopsies can be taken in different ways and the type you have will depend on what your doctor knows about your condition.

Different methods of carrying out a biopsy are outlined below.

  • Needle aspiration may be used to test a sample of your breast cells for cancer or to drain a small fluid-filled lump (a benign cyst). Your doctor will use a small needle to extract a sample of cells, without removing any tissue.
  • Needle biopsy is the most common type of biopsy. A sample of tissue is taken from a lump in your breast using a large needle. You will have a local anaesthetic, which means you will be awake but your breast will be numb. Your doctor may suggest you have a guided needle biopsy (usually this is guided by ultrasound or X-ray but sometimes MRI is used) to obtain a more precise and reliable diagnosis of cancer and to distinguish it from any non-invasive change, in particular ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • Vacuum-assisted biopsy (mammotome biopsy). The needle may be attached to a gentle suction tube which helps to obtain the sample and clear any bleeding from the area.

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Further tests for breast cancer

If the diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed, more tests will be needed to determine the stage and grade of the cancer, and to work out the best method of treatment.

Scans and X-rays

Computerised tomography (CT) scans, or chest X-ray and liver ultrasound scans, may be needed to check whether the cancer has spread. An MRI scan of the breast may be needed to clarify the results or assess the extent of the condition within the breast.

If your doctor thinks that the cancer could have spread to your bones, you may need a bone scan.

Before you have a bone scan, a substance containing a small amount of radiation, known as an isotope, will be injected into a vein in your arm.

This will be absorbed into your bone if it has been affected by cancer. The affected areas of bone will show up as highlighted areas on the bone scan, which is carried out using a special camera.

Tests to determine specific types of treatment

You will also need to have tests that show whether the cancer will respond to specific types of treatment. The results of these tests can give your doctors a more complete picture of the type of cancer you have and how best to treat it.

The types of test you could be offered are discussed below.

In some cases, breast cancer cells can be stimulated to grow by hormones that occur naturally in your body, such as oestrogen and progesterone. If this is the case, the cancer may be treated by stopping the effects of the hormones or by lowering the level of these hormones in your body. This is known as hormone therapy.

During a hormone receptor test, a sample of cancer cells will be taken from your breast and tested to see if they respond to either oestrogen or progesterone.

If the hormone is able to attach to the cancer cells (using a hormone receptor) then they are known as hormone receptor positive

While hormones can encourage the growth of some types of breast cancer, other types are stimulated by a protein called human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2).

These types of cancer can be diagnosed using a HER2 test, and are treated with medication to block the effects of HER2. This is known as biological therapy or targeted therapy

Want to know more?

Breast Cancer Care: Diagnosis.

Stage and grade of breast cancer

When your breast cancer is diagnosed, the doctors will give it a stage. The stage describes the size of the cancer and how far it has spread, and helps to predict the outlook. Sometimes, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is described as Stage 0. Other stages of breast cancer describe invasive breast cancer.

  • Stage is. the tumour is "in situ" and there's no evidence of invasion (pre-invasive)
  • Stage 1. The tumour measures less than 2cm and the lymph nodes in the armpit are not affected. There are no signs that the cancer has spread elsewhere in the body
  • Stage 2. The tumour measures between 2cm and 5cm or the lymph nodes in the armpit are affected, or both. There are no signs that the cancer has spread elsewhere in the body
  • Stage 3. The tumour measures between 2cm and 5cm and may be attached to structures in the breast, such as skin or surrounding tissues. The lymph nodes in the armpit are affected. However, there are no signs that the cancer has spread elsewhere in the body
  • Stage 4. The tumour is of any size and the cancer has spread to other parts of the body (metastasis)

This is a simplified guide. Each stage is divided into further categories called A, B and C. If you are not sure what stage you have, ask your doctor.

TNM staging system

The TNM staging system may also be used to describe breast cancer. It can provide accurate information about the diagnosis:

  • T describes the size of the tumour,
  • N describes whether cancer has spread to the lymph nodes
  • M describes whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Grade of breast cancer

The grade describes the appearance of the cancer cells.

  • Low grade (G1) – the cells, although abnormal, appear to be slow growing
  • Medium grade (G2) – cells look more abnormal than low-grade cells
  • High grade (G3) – cells look even more abnormal and are more likely to grow more quickly

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Treatment

If you have cancer, you should be cared for by a multidisciplinary team (MDT), a team of specialists who work together to provide the best treatment and care.

The main treatments for breast cancer are:

You may have one of these treatments or a combination. The type of treatment or the combination of treatments you have will depend on how the cancer was diagnosed and the stage it is at.

Breast cancer diagnosed at screening may be at an early stage, but breast cancer diagnosed when you have symptoms may be at a later stage and require a different treatment.

Your healthcare team will discuss with you which treatments are most suitable.

Choosing the right treatment for you

When deciding what treatment is best for you, your doctors will consider:

  • the stage and grade of your cancer (how big it is and how far it has spread)
  • your general health
  • whether you have been through the menopause

You should be able to discuss your treatment with your care team at any time and ask questions.

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Treatment overview

Surgery is usually the first type of treatment for breast cancer. The type of surgery you undergo will depends on the type of breast cancer you have.

Surgery is usually followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy or, in some cases, hormone or biological treatments. Again, the treatment you will have depends on your type of breast cancer.

Your doctor will discuss the most suitable treatment plan with you. Sometimes, chemotherapy or hormone therapy will be the first treatment.

Secondary breast cancer

Most breast cancers are discovered in the condition's early stages. However, a small proportion of women discover that they have breast cancer after it has spread to other parts of the body (metastasis).

If this is the case, the type of treatment you have may be different. Secondary cancer, also called advanced or metastatic cancer, is not curable.

Treatment aims to achieve a remission, where the cancer shrinks or disappears, and you feel normal and able to enjoy life to the full.

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Surgery

There are two main types of surgery for breast cancer

  • breast-conserving surgery – the cancerous lump (tumour) is removed
  • mastectomy– surgery to remove the whole breast

In many cases, a mastectomy can be followed by reconstructive surgery to try to recreate a bulge to replace the breast that was removed.

Studies have shown that breast-conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy is as successful as total mastectomy at treating early-stage breast cancer.

Breast-conserving surgery

Breast-conserving surgery ranges from a lumpectomy or wide local excision, in which just the tumour and a little surrounding breast tissue is removed, to a partial mastectomy or quadrantectomy, in which up to a quarter of the breast is removed.

If you have breast-conserving surgery, the amount of breast tissue you have removed will depend on:

  • the type of cancer you have
  • the size of the tumour and where it is in your breast
  • the amount of surrounding tissue that needs to be removed
  • the size of your breasts

Your surgeon will always remove an area of healthy breast tissue around the cancer, which will be tested for traces of cancer.

If there is no cancer present in the healthy tissue, there is less chance that the cancer will return.

If cancer cells are found in the surrounding tissue, more tissue may need to be removed from your breast.

After having breast-conserving surgery, you will usually be offered radiotherapy to destroy any remaining cancer cells.

Mastectomy

A mastectomy is the removal of all the breast tissue, including the nipple. If there are no obvious signs that the cancer has spread to your lymph nodes, you may have a mastectomy, in which your breast is removed, along with a sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB).

If the cancer has spread to your lymph nodes, you will probably need more extensive removal (clearance) of lymph nodes from the axilla (under your arm).

Reconstruction

Breast reconstruction is surgery to make a new breast shape that looks as much as possible like your other breast.

Reconstruction can be carried out at the same time as a mastectomy (immediate reconstruction) or it can be carried out later (delayed reconstruction).

It can be done either by inserting a breast implant or by using tissue from another part of your body to create a new breast.

Lymph node surgery

To find out if the cancer has spread, a procedure called a sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) may be carried out.

The sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes that the cancer cells reach if they spread. They are part of the lymph nodes under the arm (axillary lymph nodes).

The position of the sentinel lymph nodes varies, so they are identified using a combination of a radioisotope and a blue dye.

The sentinel lymph nodes are examined in the laboratory to see if there are any cancer cells present. This provides a good indicator of whether the cancer has spread.

If there are cancer cells in the sentinel nodes, you may need further surgery to remove more lymph nodes from under the arm.

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Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy uses controlled doses of radiation to kill cancer cells. It is  usually given after surgery and chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells.

If you need radiotherapy, your treatment will begin about a month after your surgery or chemotherapy to give your body a chance to recover. You will probably have radiotherapy sessions three to five days a week, for three to six weeks. Each session will only last a few minutes.

The type of radiotherapy you have depends on the type of cancer and the type of surgery you have. Some women may not need to have radiotherapy at all.

The types available are:

  • Breast radiotherapy. After breast-conserving surgery, radiation is applied to the whole of the remaining breast tissue
  • Chest wall radiotherapy. After a mastectomy, radiotherapy is applied to the chest wall
  • Breast boost. Some women may be offered a boost of high-dose radiotherapy in the area where the cancer was removed. However, the boost may affect the appearance of the breast, particularly if you have larger breasts, and can sometimes have other side effects, including hardening of the breast tissue (fibrosis)
  • Radiotherapy to the lymph nodes. Radiotherapy is aimed at the armpit (axilla) and the surrounding area to kill any cancer that may be present in the lymph nodes

The side effects of radiotherapy include:

  • irritation and darkening of the skin on your breast, which may lead to sore, red, weepy skin
  • fatigue (extreme tiredness)
  • lymphoedema (excess fluid build-up in your arm caused by blockage of the lymph nodes under your arm)

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Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy involves using anti-cancer (cytotoxic) drugs to kill the cancer cells.

Chemotherapy is usually used after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that have not been removed. This is called adjuvant chemotherapy.

In some cases, you may have chemotherapy before surgery, which is generally used to shrink a large tumour. This is called neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

Several different medications are used for chemotherapy and often three are given at once.

The choice of medication and the combination will depends on the type of breast cancer you have and how much it has spread.

Chemotherapy is usually given as an outpatient treatment, which means you will not have to stay in hospital overnight. The medications are usually given through a drip straight into the blood through a vein.

In some cases, you may be given tablets that you can take at home. You may receive chemotherapy sessions once every two to three weeks, over a period of four to eight months, to give your body a rest in between treatments.

The main side effects of chemotherapy are caused by their influence on normal, healthy cells, such as immune cells.

Side effects include:

  • infections
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea and vomiting
  • tiredness
  • hair loss
  • sore mouth

Many side effects can be prevented or controlled with medicines that your doctor can prescribe.

Chemotherapy medication can also stop the production of oestrogen in your body. Oestrogen is known to encourage the growth of some breast cancers.

If you have not been through the menopause, your periods may stop while you are undergoing chemotherapy treatment.

After you have finished the course of chemotherapy, your ovaries should start producing oestrogen again. However, in some cases this does not happen and you will enter an early menopause. This is more likely in women over the age of 40, as they are closer to menopausal age. Your doctor will discuss with you the impact that any treatment will have on your fertility.

Chemotherapy for secondary breast cancer

If your breast cancer has spread beyond the breast and lymph nodes to other parts of the body, chemotherapy will not cure the cancer but it may shrink the tumour, relieve your symptoms and help lengthen your life.

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Hormone treatment

Some breast cancers are stimulated to grow by the hormones oestrogen or progesterone, which are found naturally in your body. These types of cancer are known as hormone-receptor-positive cancers. Hormone therapy works by lowering the levels of hormones in your body or by stopping their effects.

The type of hormone therapy you have will depend on the stage and grade of your cancer, which hormone it is sensitive to, your age, whether you have been through the menopause and what other type of treatment you are having.

You will probably have hormone therapy after surgery and chemotherapy, but it is sometimes given before surgery to shrink a tumour, making it easier to remove.

Hormone therapy may be used as the only treatment for breast cancer if your general health prevents you from having surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

In most cases, you will need to take hormone therapy for up to five years after your surgery. If your breast cancer is not sensitive to hormones, hormone therapy will have no effect.

Tamoxifen

Tamoxifen stops oestrogen from binding to oestrogen-receptor-positive cancer cells. Tamoxifen is taken every day as a tablet or liquid. It can cause several side effects, including:

  • tiredness
  • changes to your periods
  • nausea and vomiting
  • hot flushes
  • aching joints
  • headaches
  • weight gain

Aromatase inhibitors

If you have been through the menopause, you may be offered an aromatase inhibitor.

This type of medication works by blocking aromatase, a substance that helps to make oestrogen in the body after the menopause. Before the menopause, oestrogen is made by the ovaries.

Three aromatase inhibitors may be offered. These are anastrozole, exemestane and letrozole. These are taken as a tablet once a day. Side effects include:

  • hot flushes and sweats
  • loss of interest in sex
  • nausea and vomiting
  • tiredness
  • aching joints and bone pain
  • headaches
  • skin rashes

Ovarian ablation or suppression

In women who have not been through the menopause, oestrogen is produced by the ovaries. Ovarian ablation or suppression stops the ovaries from working and from producing oestrogen.

Ablation can be carried out using surgery or radiotherapy. This stops the ovaries working permanently and means that you will go through the menopause early.

Ovarian suppression involves using a drug called goserelin, which is a luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa).

Your periods will stop while you are taking it, although they should start again once your treatment is complete.

If you are approaching the menopause (around the age of 50), your periods may not start again after you stop taking goserelin.

Goserelin is taken as an injection once a month and can cause menopausal side effects, including:

  • hot flushes and sweats
  • mood swings
  • trouble sleeping

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Biological therapy (targeted therapy)

Some breast cancers are stimulated to grow by a protein called human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These cancers are called HER2-positive. Biological therapy works by stopping the effects of HER2 and by helping your immune system to fight off cancer cells.

If you have high levels of the HER2 protein and are able to have biological therapy, you will probably be prescribed a medicine called trastuzumab. Trastuzumab, also known by the brand name Herceptin, is usually used after chemotherapy.

Trastuzumab

Trastuzumab is a type of biological therapy known as a monoclonal antibody. Antibodies occur naturally in your body and are made by your immune system to destroy harmful cells, such as viruses and bacteria.

The trastuzumab antibody targets and destroys cancer cells that are HER2-positive.

Trastuzumab is usually given intravenously, through a drip. It's also sometimes available as an injection under the skin (a subcutaneous injection). You will have the treatment in hospital. Each treatment session takes up to one hour and the number of sessions you need will depend on whether you have early or more advanced breast cancer.

On average, you will need a session once every three weeks for early breast cancer and weekly sessions if your cancer is more advanced.

Trastuzumab can cause side effects, including heart problems. This means that it is not suitable if you have a heart problem, such as angina, uncontrolled high blood pressure (hypertension) or heart valve disease.

If you need to take trastuzumab, you will need regular tests on your heart to make sure it is not causing any problems. Other side effects of trastuzumab may include:

  • an initial allergic reaction to the medication, which can cause nausea, wheezing, chills and fever
  • diarrhoea
  • tiredness
  • aches and pains

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Clinical trials

A great deal of progress has been made in breast cancer treatment and more women now live longer and have fewer side effects of treatment. These advances were discovered in clinical trials, where new treatments and treatment combinations are compared with standard ones.

All cancer trials in the UK are carefully overseen to ensure the trial is worthwhile and safely conducted. In fact, participants in clinical trials can do better overall than those in routine care.

If you are asked to take part in a trial, you will be given an information sheet and, if you want to take part, you will be asked to sign a consent form. You can refuse or withdraw from a clinical trial without it affecting your care.

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Psychological help

Dealing with cancer can be a huge challenge, for both patients and their families. It can bring emotional and practical difficulties. Many women have to cope with the removal of part or all of a breast, which can be very upsetting.

It often helps to talk about your feelings or other difficulties with a trained counsellor or therapist. You can ask for this kind of help at any stage of your illness.

There are various ways to find help and support. Your hospital doctor, specialist nurse or GP can refer you to a counsellor.

If you are feeling depressed, talk to your GP. A course of antidepressant drugs may help, or your GP can arrange for you to see a counsellor or psychotherapist

It can help to talk to someone who has been through the same thing as you. Many organisations have helplines and online forums. They can also put you in touch with other people who have had cancer treatment

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Complementary therapies

Complementary therapies are holistic therapies that can promote physical and emotional wellbeing.

They are given alongside conventional treatments and include:

  • relaxation techniques
  • massage
  • aromatherapy
  • acupuncture

Complementary therapy can help some women cope with diagnosis and treatment and provide a break from the treatment plan.

Your hospital or breast unit may be able to provide access to complementary therapies or suggest where you can get them.

It is important to speak to your breast cancer specialist nurse about any complementary therapy you wish to use to make sure it does not interfere with your conventional treatment.

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Living with

Living with breast cancer

Breast cancer can affect your daily life in different ways, depending on what stage it is at and what treatment you are having.

How women cope with the diagnosis and with their treatment varies from person to person. There are several forms of support if you need it. Not all of them work for everybody, but one or more of them should help.

You could:

  • talk to your friends and family. They can be a powerful support system.
  • communicate with other people who are in the same situation.
  • find out as much as possible about your condition.
  • avoid doing too much or overexerting yourself.
  • make time for yourself.

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Recovery and follow-up

Most women with breast cancer have an operation as part of their treatment. Getting back to normal after surgery can take some time. It is important to take things slowly and give yourself time to recover.

During this time, avoid lifting things (for example, children or heavy shopping bags) and avoid heavy housework. You may also be advised not to drive.

Some other treatments, particularly radiotherapy and chemotherapy, can make you very tired. You may need to take a break from some of your normal activities for a while. Do not be afraid to ask for practical help from family and friends.

Follow-up

After your treatment has finished, you will be invited for regular check-ups, usually every three months for the first year.

If you have had early breast cancer, your healthcare team will agree a care plan with you after your treatment has finished. This plan contains the details of your follow-up. You will receive a copy of the plan, which will also be sent to your GP.

During the check-up, your doctor will examine you and may do blood tests or X-rays to see how your cancer is responding to treatment. You should also be offered a mammogram every year for the first five years after your treatment.

Long-term complications

Although it is rare, your treatment for breast cancer may cause new problems, such as:

  • Pain and stiffness in your arms and shoulders may occur after surgery and the skin in these areas may be tight.
  • Lymphoedema is a build-up of excess lymph fluid which causes swelling. This may happen if surgery or radiotherapy causes damage to the lymphatic drainage system in the armpit.

Talk to your healthcare team if you experience these or any other long-term effects of treatment.

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Your body and breasts after treatment

Dealing with changes to your body

A diagnosis of breast cancer may change how you think about your body. All women react differently to the bodily changes that happen as a result of breast cancer treatment.

Some women react positively but others find it more difficult to cope. It is important to give yourself time to come to terms with any changes to your body.

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Early menopause

Although most breast cancer occurs in women over 50 who have been through the menopause, some younger women have to cope with early menopause brought on by treatment for cancer.

Symptoms can include:

  • hot flushes
  • vaginal dryness
  • loss of sexual desire

Talk to your healthcare team about any symptoms you have and they will be able to help.

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Prosthesis

An external breast prosthesis is an artificial breast which can be worn inside your bra to replace the volume of the breast that has been removed. Soon after a mastectomy, you will be given a lightweight foam breast to wear until the area affected by surgery or radiotherapy has healed.

After it has healed, you will be offered a silicone prosthesis. Prostheses come in many different sizes and shapes and you should be able to find one that suits you.

Reconstruction

If you did not have immediate breast reconstruction (carried out at the time of mastectomy), you can have reconstruction later. This is called a delayed reconstruction.

There are two main methods of breast reconstruction:

  • reconstruction using your own tissue
  • reconstruction using an implant

Which type is more suitable for you depends on many factors, including the treatment you have had, any ongoing treatment and the size of your breasts. Talk to your healthcare team about which reconstruction is suitable for you.

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Relationships and sex

Relationships with friends and family

It is not always easy to talk about cancer, either for you or your family and friends. You may sense that some people feel awkward around you or avoid you.

Being open about how you feel and what your family and friends can do to help may put them at ease. However, don't be afraid to tell them that you need some time to yourself, if that is what you need.

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Your sex life

Breast cancer and its treatment can affect your sex life. It is common for women to lose interest in sex after treatment for breast cancer.

Your treatment may leave you feeling very tired. You may feel shocked, confused or depressed about being diagnosed with cancer. You may be upset by the changes to your body or grieve the loss of your breasts or, in some cases, your fertility.

It is understandable that you may not feel like having sex while coping with all this. Try to share your feelings with your partner.

If you have problems with sex that aren't getting better with time, you may want to speak to a counsellor or sex therapist.

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Money and financial support

If you have to reduce or stop work because of your cancer, you may find it difficult to cope financially. If you have cancer or you are caring for someone with cancer, you may be entitled to financial support.

For example:

  • If you have a job but cannot work because of your illness, you are entitled to Statutory Sick Pay from your employer.
  • If you don't have a job and cannot work because of your illness, you may be entitled to Employment and Support Allowance.
  • If you are caring for someone with cancer, you may be entitled to Carer’s Allowance.
  • You may be eligible for other benefits if you have children living at home or if you have a low household income.

Find out early what help is available to you as soon as possible. Speak to the social worker at your hospital, who can give you the information you need.

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Talk to other people

Your GP or nurse may be able to answer any questions you have about your cancer or treatment.

You may find it helpful to talk to a trained counsellor or psychologist, or to someone at a specialist helpline. Your GP surgery will have information on these.

Some people find it helpful to talk to other people who have breast cancer, either at a local support group or in an internet chatroom.

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Prevention

As the causes of breast cancer are not fully understood it is not known if  it can be prevented altogether.

Some treatments are available to reduce the risk in women who have a higher risk of developing the condition than the general population.

Diet and lifestyle

Regular exercise and a healthy diet are recommended for all women as they can help prevent many conditions, including heart disease, diabetes and many forms of cancer.

Studies have looked at the link between breast cancer and diet and, although there are no definite conclusions there are benefits for women who:

  • maintain a healthy weight
  • exercise regularly
  • have a low intake of saturated fat and alcohol

Use the healthy weight calculator to check if you are a healthy weight.

It has also been suggested that regular exercise can reduce your risk of developing breast cancer by as much as a third.

If you have been through the menopause, it is particularly important you are not overweight or obese. This is because these conditions cause more oestrogen to be produced by your body, which can increase the risk of breast cancer.

Read more information about getting regular exercise and healthy weight eating.

Breastfeeding

Studies have shown that women who breastfeed are statistically less likely to develop breast cancer than those who do not. The reasons are not fully understood, but it could be because women do not ovulate as regularly while they are breastfeeding and oestrogen levels remain stable.

Treatments to reduce your risk

If you have an increased risk of developing breast cancer, treatment is available to reduce your risk.

Your level of risk is determined by factors such as your age, your family's medical history and the results of genetic tests.

You will usually be referred to a specialist genetics service if it is suspected that you are at an increased risk of breast cancer. Healthcare professionals working at these services should discuss the treatment options with you.

The two main treatments are surgery to remove the breasts (mastectomy) or medication. These are described in more detail below.

Mastectomy

A mastectomy is surgery to remove the breasts. It can be used to treat breast cancer as well as reduce the chances of developing the condition in the small number of women from high-risk families.

By removing as much breast tissue as possible, a mastectomy can reduce your risk of breast cancer by up to 90%.

However, like all operations there is a risk of complications and having your breasts removed can have a significant effect on your body image and sexual relationships.

If you want to, you can usually choose to have a breast reconstruction either during the mastectomy operation, or at a later date. During breast reconstruction surgery, your original breast shape is recreated using either implants or tissue from elsewhere in your body.

An alternative is to use breast prostheses. These are artificial breasts that can be worn inside your bra.

An alternative to mastectomy is a nipple-sparing mastectomy, where the whole mammary gland is removed, but the skin envelope is preserved. This is not widely available at the moment, but it's being used more often and can achieve excellent results.

Medication

Two medications, called tamoxifen and raloxifene, are available on the NHS for women who have an increased risk of developing breast cancer.

Either tamoxifen or raloxifene can be used in women who have been through the menopause, but only tamoxifen should be used in women who haven't.

These medications may not be suitable if in the past you have had blood clots or womb cancer, or if you have an increased risk of developing these problems in the future. Women who have already had a mastectomy to remove both breasts won't be offered these medications because their risk of developing breast cancer is very small.

A course of treatment with tamoxifen or raloxifene will usually involve taking a tablet every day for five years.

Raloxifene can cause side effects including flu-like symptoms, hot flushes and leg cramps. Side effects of tamoxifen can include hot flushes and sweats, changes to your periods and nausea and vomiting.

Your chances of giving birth to a child with birth defects increases while you are taking tamoxifen, so you will be advised to stop taking it at least two months before trying for a baby. The medication can also increase your risk of blood clots so you should stop taking it six weeks before any planned surgery.

Tamoxifen and raloxifene aren't currently licensed for the purpose of reducing the risk of breast cancer in women with an increased risk of developing the condition.

However, they can still be used if you understand the benefits and risks and your doctor believes the treatment will be helpful.

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The information on this page has been adapted by NHS Wales from original content supplied by NHS Choices.
Last Updated: 05/09/2017 15:15:15